GPS Mapping

GPS BASED MAPPING AND WATER QUALITY TESTING

GPS based Mapping, Water Quality Testing & Sanitary Survey of Public Drinking Water Sources in Rural Habitations, data compilation in MS-Excel format and its entry into I.M.I.S. under National Rural Drinking Water Program of Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation, GoI.

BACKGROUND:

Ground Water, a prime and precious resource of the nature and an important component of water cycle, has emerged as a ‘Democratic resource’ in the State of U.P. because of relative ease to exploit it with greater flexibility and, therefore, the dependency on this resource has increased manifold. Now, ground water has attained a vital position in the overall water resource development plans & programs of the State, especially in drinking water sector. The demand of this resource is growing in multiple proportions and its contribution can be assessed by the fact that ground water resource is fulfilling more than 80% of drinking water demand in the State.

Last three decades have seen an exponential growth in the number of ground water based drinking water supply schemes in rural segment. Still there are a number of habitations yet to be covered with assured drinking water source. As per the U.P. Jal Nigam’s estimates, about 12000 million liters of ground water is being extracted every day for drinking purposes both in urban & rural areas of the State. The ever-increasing drinking water requirements have also put ground water reservoirs under ‘stress’.

The continuous & escalated abstraction of ground water resource in irrigation, industrial and drinking water sectors has resulted into widespread depletion of aquifers causing decline of ground water levels to alarming stage. As per the studies of Ground Water Department, 630 blocks are affected with ground water level decline, requiring rain water harvesting measures for ground water recharge.

Besides, ground water quality is also an area of great concern for ensuring safe water supplies in the rural habitations of the State. The quality aspect of ground water resources has emerged as a new threat and, therefore, ground water pollution has now become a burning issue. Studies reveal that the inadequate sewerage system, improper waste disposal sites & various industrial activities, besides natural geogenic and anthropogenic causes are responsible for contaminating ground water. The findings of quality assessment of ground water, so far taken up in isolation by different organizations/agencies, have shown that ground water, at places, is contaminated with Fluoride, Arsenic, Iron, TDS, Nitrate along with reported presence of heavy metals  and also the pesticide residue. However, it is also noticeable that the quality reports so far available do not represent the actual quality status of ground water in the State.

To cope up with such impact of over-development, unplanned use and improper activities, the imperative need is to scientifically assess the ground water resource through a well-established system of geo-referenced monitoring network of drinking water sources for systematic study of ground water quality in the State.

HYDROGEOLOGICAL SETUP OF U.P.:

The Uttar Pradesh is a part of Ganga basin comprising Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghra and Sone sub basins. The State is further divided into four major hydrogeological zones namely Terai zone, Central Ganga plain, Marginal Alluvial plain and Southern peninsular zone. The Bhabhar zone includes very small areas covering parts of Bijnor and Saharanpur districts infringing the international boundary in northern most part of the State. The Central Ganga plain constitutes the major geographical area of the State.

The distribution of ground water is quite uneven and uncertain due to varied hydrogeological and hydro-geomorphological setup of the State. The depth to ground water levels generally varies from 2 meters below ground level (mbgl) to even as deep as 30 mbgl. This wide variation in ground water levels is due to different hydrogeological conditions that prevail across the State. In the canal command such as Sharda Sahayak, Upper Ganga, Gandak etc. shallow water levels of less than 2 mbgl are observed. The deeper water levels of more than 20 mbgl are observed in ravine tract along Yamuna River between district Agra and Allahabad.

PRESENT STATUS OF GROUND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT:

A number of Organizations in the State are dealing with the water quality issues for their respective schemes/programs. However, the emerging trends of deteriorated ground water quality are quite disturbing considering the challenges of potable water supplies. Ground water quality as reported is mainly contaminated with Fluoride, Arsenic, Iron, Nitrate, and high TDS etc. including heavy metals and pesticides. Recently, Arsenic has been reported in alarming proportion mainly in Districts Ballia, Bahraich, Basti, Bareilly, Chandauli, Ghazipur, Gorakhpur, Lakhimpur Kheeri, Siddharthnagar and Unnao.

There is no single Organization, which could own the responsibility of ground water quality assessment with a set of specific norms & standards. How the actual status of ground water quality should be assessed, what parameters should be selected for quality monitoring, what are prime causes/sources for contamination, which aquifers are polluted & up to what depth ground water quality is poor, what should be the standard monitoring & surveillance system, how it should be mitigated, these are some critical issues in context of the State, which need to be resolved through a systemic study.

Objectives of the assignment:

  • The main objective of the assignment is to develop a comprehensive Database regarding inventory of all existing Public Drinking Water Sources with GPS location and their Water Quality analysis to ascertain the suitability for domestic use and for preparation of Village Water Security Plans accordingly. This Database shall be used for implementation of GIS based Decision Support System. The Data is to be uploaded on Management Information System with Integrated GIS in the form of a Web-enabled Management Information System. The Web-enabled MIS/GIS would primarily be an online system which would act as a bridge between various district project units of the implementing agencies, thus facilitating online data feeding and management of Information and Reporting system.
  • The assignment also aims at identifying the issues pertaining to inequitable distribution of water points. Spatial distribution would identify any pocket having no/less access to drinking water.
  • The assignment also aims to identify the age of hand pumps/ Piped Water Supply Systems to identify the areas where HPs/ PWS have lived their ages. This information may be collected by local enquiry.
  • It requires capturing of GPS location, which includes the Latitude & Longitude for their geographical location and height of ground level above mean sea level for each and every existing Public Drinking Water Source, including India Mark-II Hand Pumps, besides different components of piped Water Supply Schemes, other Surface Water Bodies and Sustainability Structures/Rain Water Harvesting Schemes located in every habitation.
  • Water Quality testing, using FTKs and H2S Vials, of all the Public Drinking Water Sources including India Mark-II Hand Pumps and Public Stand Posts of Piped water supply schemes covering all the habitations in the rural areas of the State for ascertaining their suitability for drinking/domestic use.
  • Samples of Water Sources tested positive for any type of contamination shall be submitted for analysis with laboratory methods at the District Laboratory of U.P. Jal Nigam.
  • All the data related to GPS location of each and every existing Drinking Water Sources, Surface Water Bodies, Sustainability Structures and their water quality is to be entered into IMIS software developed by Department of Drinking Water & Sanitation, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India.

SCOPE OF WORK:

The scope of work would entail:

1 Capturing GPS Location of all the existing Public Drinking Water Sources at habitation level, including India Mark-II Hand Pumps, different components of Piped water supply Schemes, Surface Water Bodies and Sustainability Structures including Rain Water Harvesting Schemes, in the rural areas of State.
  • Providing data in GIS enabled files and source details in database etc., confirming to ToR.  The activities will have to be conducted Zone wise. The Agency/Vendor will be required to capture the co-ordinates, including height of ground level above mean sea level with calibrated GPS receiver for integration with the GIS application. The process of data capturing requires to be validated for accuracy by calibration at nearby Survey of India bench mark. Details of Bench mark, viz. Latitude, Longitude and Physical location are to be given.
  • The location information will include GPS co-ordinates, Physical description for local identification and other details.
  • Location of surface water bodies such as ponds shall be in polygon shape indicating the aqueduct and will be taken at the point of inlet. For drainage system it may be in line shape with multiple point locations.
  •  Details of pipe water supply should include details of intake works including pump station (if any), raw water mains, treatment plant(s), Reservoir tanks including balancing tanks and bore holes, House service connections, public stand posts.

Illustrative database

The GPS mapping and water quality sampling of all Hand Pumps and Piped Water Supply Schemes is to be carried out. In case of Piped Water Supply Schemes, details of Intake/ Source works, treatment work, storage and distribution points has to be recorded.

2 Water Quality Testing and Sanitary Survey of all Public Drinking Water Sources including India Mark-II Hand Pumps,house hold connections and Public Stand Posts of Piped water supply Schemes in the rural areas of State, which will also include water sources located in the schools, anganwadis, community center, public health center and panchayat bhawan.
  • Testing for Fluoride, Iron, Nitrate, Arsenic, pH, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Chloride, and residual Chlorine (for Piped Water Supply Schemes only) using FTKs, Bacteriological Testing using H2S Vials and Sanitary Survey along with digital photography of each source is to be performed by the Agency/Vendor. The digital photograph should display date and also the Latitude and Longitude of the location. In case of HPs, both Chemical and Bacteriological testing is to be done while in case of PWS schemes Chemical testing is to be done at source and Bacteriological testing is to be done at randomly selected 25%house hold connections and 25% public stand posts. The residual Chlorine is to be tested in pipe water supply schemes at source and at the farthest point. Samples testing positive for any type of pollution/ contamination shall be submitted for testing by laboratory methods in the UP Jal Nigam, District labs. Sanitary survey of all the India Mark-II Hand Pumps and Piped water supply Schemes is to be carried out as per the formats enclosed.
  • Only Government hand pumps, pipe water supply schemes & village ponds will be tested by FTKs. Dug well, if any, will be tested only in that condition where it is being used for drinking purpose and the fact is to be verified by Member of VWSC/Gram Pradhan.
3. Entering GPS locations and Water Quality Data in the database.

Preparation of notional Gram Panchayat maps

  • Database format developed by SWSM/U.P. Jal Nigam is enclosed, and the data collected by the agency will be entered in to the MS-Excel format and finally uploaded by the Agency on IMIS.
  • Preparation of notional Gram Panchayat maps (not to scale) including Revenue Village Boundary, Habitation boundary, prominent features in the GP and approximate location of all water sources in the village and ground water quality using both primary & secondary data will be done by the Vendor.
  • Executive Engineer, UP Jal Nigam will provide only a Gram Panchayat/Village/Habitation-wise list of existing number of drinking water sources and the description of location to the Vendor.
  • The Survey team will have to identify the source, allocate a unique census based code, which will include 8 digit code for the village, and carry out the Survey afresh. The District/Block/Village/ Source code shall be marked on every source using paint/permanent marker.
  • The Agency/Vendor will provide a detailed roster before start of the work to the SWSM and Chairman of DWSC.
  • All the water sources and sustainability structures located in the geographical limits of the Gram Panchayat shall be included in this work.
  • Water harvesting structures will include Check Dam, Gabion, Anicuts, Percolation Tank and village pond. In case if they are dry, water sample for testing shall be collected from the Piezometer or a nearby boring/well.
  • Other sustainability structures where water is not stored will require only GPS location to be taken along with digital photograph. Payment in such cases shall be admissible on the rates quoted for this item of work only.
  • No Chemical Testing shall be required for randomly selected 25% house hold connections and 25% public stand posts in which only Bacteriological testing alone is required. Hence payments of such sources/ delivery points shall be admissible only at the rates quoted for the job of GPS location and uploading of validated data in to IMIS carried out by the Agency/Vendor.

 

Zone Code Zone Commissionaires No. of water sources
1 Allahabad Allahabad, Varanasi, Vindhyachal 400796
2 Ghaziabad Agra, Meerut, Aligarh 306044
3 Moradabad Bareilly, Moradabad, Saharanpur 269012
4 Jhansi Chitrakoot, Jhansi, Kanpur 317579

Note: The number may vary and payment shall be made on actual basis.

 

Activities/Tasks to be completed:

 

  • Training of field staff on use of GPS, sanitary survey as per GoI guideline, water sampling and testing using Field Test Kits (FTKs) and H2S Vials.
  • Geo-referencing for all the water sources to record x,y,z co-ordinates (latitude, longitude & reduced level) through high accuracy GPS receiver of  latest technology (having accuracy of < 5 mts, resolution of not less than 272×480 pixels, automatic routing facility and camera of at least 5 megapixel) and to develop location maps for water sources.
  • Quality assessment of 100% public ground water sources to be carried out by using FTKs and Bacteriological Testing by H2S Vials provided to the Vendor, and water quality data to be collected during a survey in all the habitations. Contaminated/positive samples will be handed over to UP Jal Nigam district laboratories for analysis with laboratory methods.
  • 1% samples shall be collected by the Vendor following the standards of water sample collection and preservation and handed over to the State level/Regional laboratory of UP Jal Nigam for validation of water quality testing work.
  • Sanitary Survey along with digital photograph of each source.
  • Age of the Source may be collected by local enquiryand marked (P) in the appropriate column of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 &>15 years in the reporting format.
  • Quality assurance of water source testing and GPS value collection to be done by senior key persons of the vendor.
  • Preparation of notional Village maps (Not to scale) showing location of all the existing drinking water sources and ground water quality in the State using both primary & secondary data will be done by the Vendor.
  • Creation of a final database with unique Identity number, as per department’s requirement, for each water source in MS-Excel format and uploading of validated data in the IMIS by the Agency/Vendor.
  • Sharing of database through interactive workshops/seminars.

 

Progress of work:

Lucknow & Gorakhpur Zone:

  • Agreement signed for Lucknow zone (15 Districts) with M/s ADCC Infocad Ltd, Nagpur on 07.02.2013 for Rs. 17,84,95,614.00.
  • Agreement signed for Gorakhpur zone (10 Districts) with Remote Sensing Application Center, U.P. on 07.02.2013 for Rs. 12,24,00,000.00.
  • Work completed in all the 25 districts, wherein the field survey/testing was carried out on 11,00,330 drinking water sources against the total target of 8,79,884 sources, and 5% field validation completed.
  • Samples of 24,022 sources found contaminated in field testing submitted to UP Jal Nigam Chemical Lab for Analysis.
  • Verification of data at the State level with the help of NIC in UP Jal Nigam Data Center is completed for Lucknow zone and work of Gorakhpur zone is in progress.

Allahabad, Jhansi, Ghaziabad and Moradabad Zone:

  • Agreements signed for all 04 zones (50 Districts) with M/s ADCC Infocad Ltd, Nagpur on 10.02.2015 for Total Rs. 44,23,53,402.00 & work started on 10.02.2015.
  •  Work completed in District Allahabad, Ghazipur, Sonbhadra, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Chitrakoot, Banda, Hamirpur, Mahoba, Lalitpur, Jhansi, Jalaun, Auraiyya, Kanpur Dehat, Kanpur Nagar, Kannauj, Farrukhabad, Ghaziabad, Hapur, Meerut, Pilibhit & Shahjahanpur. Field survey/ testing of 1,01,453 sources completed. .
  • Work in progress in 7 Districts & yet to be started in remaining 20 districts.
Determination of Latitude & Longitude
of drinking water source by using GPS.
Coding of Source and Collection
of Water Sample.
Water Quality Testing of drinking water
source by using FTK and H2S Vial.
Sanitary Survey of drinking water
source.