Water Security

PILOT PROJECTS ON ACHIEVING DRINKING WATER SECURITY THROUGH CONVERGENCE AND PARTICIPATORY INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT UNDER NATIONAL RURAL DRINKING WATER PROGRAMME OF MINISTRY OF DRINKING WATER & SANITATION GoI.

Background

Deliberations in the International workshop on Achieving Drinking Water Security in Water stressed and Quality-affected Areas on 25-26 May 2010 focused on the need for measurement of the various parameters of ground water for its effective management. Elaborating on ‘it is difficult to manage what is not measured’ the then Hon’ble Minister for Rural Development, Dr. C.P.Joshi, expressed the need for addressing different dimensions of drinking water security which include 1) Unit of management – district, block or panchayat, 2) Rural to Urban transition and disparities – minimum tariffs and standards, 3) Issues of agricultural power subsidies and
energy component in drinking water to enable appropriate pricing and recovery 4) Conjunctive storage in aquifers and rainwater harvesting systems, and 5) Demand and supply side management of water. As a follow up to the workshop, a meeting was held on 4th June 2010 with, CGWB, CAZRI, World Bank, WSP-SA and APF AMGS to discuss the process for operationalisation of a pilot programme for convergent action for sustainability and Panchayat monitoring and management of water resources to achieve drinking water security in selected overexploited blocks in different states. WSP suggested that there was a need to document the relevant data and offered to provide technical assistance in the design and monitoring of the national pilot.

Pilot Projects

In the above light, pilot projects are being launched with the objective of achieving drinking water security in a holistic manner, through a four-pronged approach of

  • Measures for source sustainability through convergence with MNREGS, IWMP and other Watershed programmes and NRDWP

  • Participatory integrated water resources management led by Gram Panchayats

  • Preparation of drinking water security plans by villages

  • Making the selected villages open defecation free and ensuring proper solid and liquid
    waste management

Initially, selected aquifers/sub-watersheds/hydrological units in selected over-exploited blocks
may be identified for demonstration with a provision for scaling up to the district level and thereafter on to a larger scale if the pilots are successful. About 10-15 blocks with alarming level
of ground water development have been identified in the 10 States of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh,
Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and
Maharashtra. Financing for the pilot will come from the existing allocations under the NRDWP.
Sustainabilityand Support components, MNREGS funds and allocations under the 13th Finance
Commission recommendations. The pilot projects will focus on operationalising drinking water
security and total sanitation in a holistic manner and will attempt to address the different
dimensions of water security and sanitation including what it will cost in terms of investments,
setting of minimum standards for pricing, quality and quantity, storage management that includes
aquifer management, demand side management and capacity building and training. This will also
be necessary to plan for capacity building to scale up the activity. Convergence will be worked
out with Department of Rural Development dealing with MNREGS, Department of Land
Resources dealing with watershed development, Ministry of Water Resources dealing with water
resources and Ministry of Agriculture dealing with water use for agricultural crops.

Institutional framework for implementation of the Pilot:

  • The new guidelines for the National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP)
    provide the necessary operational guidance with a package of funding and
    institutional framework that shift emphasis in the sector to ensure drinking water security’ for sustainable supply of adequate and good quality water for villages.
    In accordance with this, convergent action plans for water conservation,
    community managed water development plans and village water security plans
    will be prepared for all the villages in the hydrological units focusing on
    appropriate and fruitful convergence with other schemes. The four main features
    of the pilot would be

    • preparation and implementation of a Sustainability plan through
      convergence for the selected watersheds/aquifers with an objective
      to plan and construct water conservation and recharge structures
      including related afforestation works to saturate the
      watershed/aquifer. Guidelines for convergence under district
      planning, MNREGS, Watershed programmes and BRGF will be
      used to ensure convergence of programmes.

    • community led water resources management and water quality
      monitoring and surveillance through awareness generation,
      capacity building and handholding of the Gram Panchayats and
      communities

    • planning for drinking water security. Implementation will be through Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs), Block Resource Centres (BRCs) and District Water and Sanitation Missions (DWSMs);

    • coverage of all households in the habitations in the selected
      aquifers/watersheds with toilets and with solid and liquid waste
      management in the selected villages for reuse, recycling and
      recharging of waste water and safe disposal of solid waste.

  • A concurrent study on the cost of delivery, pricing and tariffs across a sample number of small towns, large and small villages

  • A concurrent study on the activity mapping done by different states in devolving drinking water supply to the local governments

  • A Steering Committee set up in the Ministry will advice the States on the pilot projects.

    Methodology for pilot projects:

    The key activities to be taken up in the proposed Pilots are:

    Phase-I: Preparatory phase:

    • Identify the districts and ten-fifteen blocks by the Government of India and State Governments (2 weeks); – Done

    • Identify reputed NGOs in each State to provide support to GPs, VWSCs and communities in the pilots, to work on developing capacity building plans and water security plans in the pilot areas- supervised and supported by MDWS/ State Governments/ steering committee and hiring the same (8-1 0 weeks);

    • Preparation of Sustainability Plans by

    • obtaining baseline data from CGWB, NRSC and Ministry of Water Resources on
      groundwater including nature of aquifers, and surface water resources including rainfall
      patterns for each block and pattern of water use to enable water budgeting and analyse
      the same (2 months);

    • Design training modules for groundwater management( including demand-side
      management of agriculture) and demonstration visits to APF AMGS and other projects (2
      months from start);

    • Designing training modules for surface water management including rainwater harvesting
      based on TBS and other successful water harvesting initiatives and roll out training and
      demonstration visits (2 months from start);

    • Concerned Area Officers ofMDWS, WSP and FAO to guide the selected block level
      staff in developing Sustainability plans for the selected hydrological
      units/aquifers/watersheds to saturate them with measures for water conservation, recharge
      structures, revival of traditional water bodies, including afforestation and horticulture
      based on a ridge to valley approach.

    Phase-2: Capacity Building, Surveys and analysis

    • Once the sustainability plans are prepared, the Working group and the concerned State
      Governments will draw up timelines to implement these plans.

    • The NGOs will take up awareness generation and training activities in the identified
      hydrological units to engage the Gram Panchayat and VWSC members and other selected
      villagers in collection and analysis of ground and surface water data, building their
      understanding of the dynamics and status of the local aquifers. The villagers will be given
      knowledge of profitability of crops, water consumption of crops, selection of cropping
      patterns that optimize productivity and returns while minimizing risk, water saving
      techniques of cultivation, and improved agricultural techniques.

    • Review and assessment of the efficiency and effectiveness of the existing water supply
      systems in the pilot areas and initiate measures to (a) introduce bulk water metering and
      retail water metering where appropriate; (b) introduce operating plans and service
      improvement plans to increase operational efficiency(6 months from start);

    • Utilise HGM maps on a GIS platform/template for each block incorporating all the
      relevant themes for continued analysis(6 months from start) ;

    • Develop relational mapping between climate change grids and the pilots to better prepare
      for adaptation and mitigation measures against climate change induced variability in
      conjunction with the National Water Mission objectives (1 year);

    • Identify variables to create an index for benchmarking and rating of blocks/districts in
      terms of water scarcity and availability and quality of drinking water service delivery (1
      Year).

    Develop VillagelBlock Water Security and Sanitation Plans

    Develop villagesl block water security plans with active participation of the community, Village
    Water and Sanitation Committees, BRCs, DWSM, PHED and other stakeholders. The plans
    should have options identified with budgets and O&M costs and options preferred by the
    community. The plan will also detail local institutional arrangements, roles and responsibilities
    and soft issues such as norms for water use regulation, user tariffs, quality monitoring etc. The
    Plan will also include actions for covering all households with toilets and solid and liquid waste
    management in the selected villages. (9 months)

    Phase-3: Implementation of the Plans:

    The implementation of the Sustainability plans will be done by the respective VWSCs
    with support from BPIBRC, ZPI DWSM, state level PHEDs and other organizations as
    appropriate. The budgets will be allocated as per the plans developed. Detailed execution
    plan will be drawn as a part of the overall water security plan. For works related to
    rainwater harvesting! water conservation etc, it will be important to complete them before
    on-set of monsoons. (Start in 6 months).
    The concerned NGOs will work with the selected communities to help them in the
    participatory water resources management and crop planning and diversification for
    optimizing returns.

    Phase-4: Monitoring improvements:

    The VWSC and GP members and villagers will be trained and empowered to monitor the
    improvements due to the implementation of Sustainability and water security plans.
    Monitoring would be of O&M, water quality, quantity of water consumption by sectors
    and households, equity, dispute resolution etc. For external monitoring and evaluation,
    the Working Group may entrust each block to agencies like CGWB, NIH, and CAZRI.
    The BRCI DWSM and! or the state PHED will assist and support the VWSCI GP in this
    phase. (12 -24 months). Key Resource Centres will help in documentation of the process
    and the lessons. CGWB and CAZRI will provide technical guidance.

    Outputs from the Pilot projects

    The main output would demonstrate the three-pronged approach of convergence of MNREGS,
    Watershed programmes and NRDWP for source sustainability, community monitoring and
    management of water resources for optimal allocation and village IBlock Water Security
    Planning in ensuring drinking water security. Other outputs will include:

    • Sustainability plans developed and implemented through convergent action.

    • Demonstration of Gram Panchayat, VWSC and community monitored and managed
      ground and surface water management and water quality monitoring and surveillance
      approach.

    • Village Water Security Plans developed and implemented in pilot hydrological units. The
      same would be useful in developing planning guidelinesl templates for other areas;

    • Information on actual costs in investments, capacity building and training which can be
      used as benchmark for future planning and budgeting purposes for scaling up and to
      sustain the approach;

    • Agreement on the institutional framework (roles and responsibilities) and fund flows to
      operationalise the approach;

    • A rating module that could help for scaling up;

    • Training materials and a training plan to bring capacity for scale up

    RESPONSIBLE AGENCY

    ROLE

    MDW&S

    Strategic management of the pilot through

     

    setting up and chairing a national Working

     

    Group, identification of the districtlblocks.

     

    Preparation of TORs for identification of

     

    Support Organisations and necessary

     

    guidance to States, districts and blocks

    STATE GOVERNMENT/PHED

    Identify the blocks/hydrological units,

     

    Identification of Support Organisations, issue

     

    necessary GO, implement pilot programmes

     

    in their blocks

    CGWB/CAZRl

    Technical support and monitoring

    Support Organisations

    Training, Capacity Building and continued

     

    support to empower GPs, VWSCs and

     

    villagers

    DoRD, DoLR, MoWR and MoAgri

    Ensure convergence of funds at the local

     

    level; Technical support and facilitation

    WSP-SA, FAO

    Technical support

    ESTIMATED COST

    The total estimated cost for 10 blocks for 3 years is Rs. 10.50 crore for the software component, which is expected to be allocated from NRDWP (Support) funds available with State Governments. The cost of hardware support is estimated at Rs.140 crore which is expected to be financed from the NRDWP(Sustainability) funds, MNREGS, Watershed programmes, BRGF, State Plan funds etc. List of over-exploited Blocks with among the highest levels of groundwater development selected by States for Pilot projects (as on 17/1/2012).

    List of over-exploited Blocks with among the highest levels of groundwater
    development selected by States for Pilot projects (as on 17/1/2012).

    S1. No.

    District

    Name of selected Block

    Andhra Pradesh

    1

    Anantapur

    Gorantalu

    2

    Nalgonda

    Moothey

    3

    Chitto or

    Pileru

    Guiarat

    4

    Mahesana

    Kheralu

    Harvana

    5

    Kaithal

    Kaithal

    Karnataka

    6

    Kolar

    Mulbagal

    Maharashtra

    7

    Amravati

    Warud

    Madhya Pradesh

    8

    Ratlam

    Piploda

    9

    Satna

    Rampur Baghelan

    Punjab

    10

    Sangrur

    Dhuri

    Rajasthan

    11

    Bhilwara

    Raipur

    Tamilnadu

    12

    Dharmapuri

    Morappur

    Uttar Pradesh

    13

    Agra

    Barauli Ahir

    14

    Jhansi

    Mauranipur

    Detailed costing of Support Organization

     

     

     

    Cost/ unit!

    cost/

     

     

     

    month

     

    year

    Sr.No

    Detail

    Untis

    Rs’ 000

     

    Rs’ 000

     

    Staff costs

     

     

     

     

    1

    Team leader

    1

     

    30

    360

    2

    Hydrological facilitator

    1

     

    25

    300

    3

    Engineering facilitator

    1

     

    25

    300

    4

    Social mobilizers

    3

     

    15

    540

    5

    Admn/ accounts

    1

     

    15

    180

     

    Total staff

    7

     

     

     

     

    Admn costs

     

     

     

     

    6

    Lumpsum

    1

     

    20

    240

     

    Travel costs

     

     

     

     

    7

    Lumpsum

    1

     

    35

    420

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Total

     

     

     

    2340

     

    Rounded off

     

     

     

    2350

     

    Cost/ GP/ year

     

     

     

    47

    Assumptions:

    • A team of about 10 professionals will work in about 50 GPs in a block

    • The admn costs include: office rent, communications, electricity, water

    • The travel cost is for the team to travel to villages regularly

    • Other costs related to training, exposure visits etc are budgeted separately

    Broad activities of the SO are:

    • The main objective is to provide hands-on support to the GPs/ VWSCs.

    • Community mobilization and local institutions building (VWSCs etc)

    • Support VWSCs in groundwater and water demand estimates and preparing water budget

    • Support VWSCs in preparing water security plans

    • Suport VWSCs in implementing water security plans

    • 6.0rganize/ coordinate training of VWSC members and local leaders from time to time

    • Coordinate with Block/ districts/ PHED and other important departments

    • Monitor progress, document and report on a quarterly basis to DWSM/ Block in-charge.

    Water Security Planning and Implementation Pilot Programme

    Budget Estimates for 2 years

     

     

     

     

     

    Cost/

     

     

    Sr,No

    Category

    Activity detail

    Unit

    Units/ Block

    unit

     

    Cost! Block

     

     

     

     

     

    Rs Lakhs

    Rs Lakhs

    1

    Software

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Support Organization

    50 blocks*2Years

    100

     

    0.47

    47

    1.2

     

    Exposure visits

    Elected reps/ officers 4 per GP

    200

     

    0.1

    20

    1.3

     

    Training

    SO staff/ VWSC reps 5 per GP

    250

     

    0.05

    12.5

    1.4

    ~i,.

    Measuring equipment

    electrical sounders,tilti raingauge station etc

    50

     

    0.3

    15

    1.5

     

    Software -GIS maps etc

    Lumpsum

     

     

     

    5

    1.6

     

    Field test kit refills

    1 refiII/GP/year=50*2

    100

     

    0.01

    1

     

     

    Sub total-1

     

     

     

     

    100,5

     

     

    Rounded off

     

     

     

     

    105

    2

    Hardware

     

     

     

     

     

     

    2.1

     

    Roofwater harvesting

    Instituitional buildings

    250

     

    0.8

    200

    2.2

     

    Source protection/ conservation

    Checkdam/ ponds etc. *

    100

     

    7

    700

    2.3

     

    Augmenting/ new water

    GP

    50

     

    10

    500

     

     

    water supply systems

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Sub total-2

     

     

     

     

    1400

     

     

    Rounded off

     

     

     

     

    1400

     

     

    Total rounded off cost/ Block

     

     

     

     

    1505

     

     

    Cost/GP

     

     

     

     

    30,1

     

     

     

    Assumptions:

     

     

     

     

    • About 50 GPs in each block will be the target for software activities, in batches

    • Each GP has about 150 hhs and 1000 people and 5 instituitional buildings on an avergae

    • Software activities will be carried out in all GPs, clustered in hydrological units

    • All the activities will be carried out in 2 years time

    • 5. Hardware activities will be carried out in needy villages as given below:

      • About 5 institutional roofwater harvesting structures of 20,000 litres in all SaD GPs

      • Source protection, conservation measures like checkdams, percolation tanks, gully plugs, recharge pits, injection wells etc.planned in each GP

      • Funds from other programs like MNREGS and IWMP will be converged for taking up source protection measures
    • O & M will from O&M Funds, other funds like Finance Commission grants, user charges etc.

    • These are rough estimates and final estimates will be developed during the GP level planning phase

    Drinking Water Security Pilot project in Over-exploited Block Barauli Aheer, Agra and Mauranipur, District Jhansi.

    • Pilot Project launched in 02 over-exploited Blocks of the State Barauli Aheer in Agra and Mauranipur in District Jhansi.
    • Dharam Gramin Utthan Sansthan was engaged by DWSM, Agra and Shohratgarh Environmental Society was engaged by DWSM, Jhansi as Support Organisation for carrying out the software activities such as training, awareness, capacity building and hand holding of community for understanding the problem of water scarcity, preparation of water budget and GP specific water security plan for rain water harvesting, water conservation practices in domestic as well as irrigation use and changes in cropping pattern to meet the water deficit in the GP. A total sum of Rs. 2,64,00,000.00 released to DWSM, Agra and Jhansi and R.S.A.C. under the pilot project.
    • Rain Gauges to record daily rain fall, Water Level Indicators to measure depth of ground water level and Stop Watch & 100 liter drum to measure the discharges of Tube Wells provided to every GP. Volunteers trained to take the measurements and maintain the data.
    • Water Budget Training Completed in all the 56 GPs of Block Barauli Aheer in Agra and all the 55 GPs of Mauranipur in district Jhansi.
    • Reforms for water conservation started after Water Budget Training by adopting change in cropping pattern for less water consuming crops.
    • Members of VWSCs trained for preparation of Water Budget by community in village Madanpalli, District Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh and for demonstration of 24×7 water supply schemes for improved service delivery to village Malkapur in Maharashtra.
    • Measurement of rainfall, ground water level and discharge of tube wells carried out by volunteers in all the GPs. 
    • Preparation of village water security plans completed.
    • Hardware activities under each water Security plan are to be carried out through additional funds provided to the GPs under 14th Finance Commission.

    Construction of household toilets and solid, liquid waste management started.

    Water Budget Training in the
    GPs.
    Water Quality Testing by using
    FTK and H2S Vial.
    Water Quality Testing by using
    FTK and H2S Vial.